The Critically Endangered Caledon Conebush

25 Aug 2021

The critically endangered Caledon conebush, Leucadendron elimense subsp. salteri, occurs in an area of less than 9 km², in four small, severely fragmented subpopulations. It continues to decline due to alien plant invasion, ongoing habitat loss to agriculture, and wildflower harvesting. Most subpopulations are on isolated fragments among crop fields in the Bot River Valley, Hemel-en-Aarde Valley and Shaw’s Pass, and only one is formally conserved, the one found in Craigantlet Nature Reserve situated near the town of Bot River.

Leucadendron Leucadendron elimense subsp. salteriLeucadendron elimense subsp. salteri is a shrub growing up to 1.5m and is sparsely branched. It is a dioecious plant, meaning the female and male flowers are on separate plants. It flowers between August and September and is pollinated by insects. The parent plants are killed by fire, but the seeds are stimulated by fire to germinate.

Reference: Protea Atlas

Caledon conebush, Leucadendron elimense subsp. salteri, beneath Eskom powerlines (Photo: A. Brink).

A Caledon conebush seedling (Photo: A. Brink).

A male Caledon conebush plant near an agricultural field (Photo: S.D. Gildenhuys).

An almost dried up male Caledon conebush flower head (Photo: S.D. Gildenhuys).

The female Caledon conebush flower head (Photo: A. Brink).

A male Caledon conebush flowerhead (Photo: S.D. Gildenhuys).

A young Caledon conebush plant (Photo: S.D. Gildenhuys).


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